Abortion rights: an endless struggle for the freedom to dispose of one's own body

Abortion rights: an endless struggle for the freedom to dispose of one's own body

On the occasion of World Abortion Rights Day, 28 Union and in the world and issue six recommendations to guarantee this right at European and national level.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), between 2010 and 2014, almost one in two abortions was unsafe and a third was performed in conditions that were dangerous or very risky to women's lives.

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“Preventing Unsafe Abortions”, World Health Organization, September 25, 2020.. Every nine minutes, a woman worldwide dies from an unsafe abortion

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Véronique Séhier, "A woman dies every 9 minutes from an illegal abortion in the world", Le Parisien, May 20, 2018 .. In this context, the Conservatives - primarily political leaders and religious representatives - constantly strategize around the world , restricting and violating women's sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). This is evidenced by recent news in Texas, which bans voluntary termination of pregnancy (abortion) after six weeks, but most women are unaware that they can pregnant at this point, or even across the Atlantic in Poland, where the ruling Law and Justice Party has made the abortion ban a battle horse.September 28, International Abortion Rights Day, is approaching, and the attacks and threats to control women's bodies have never been more acute than ever before. This memo attempts to provide an overview of the world current laws and the multiple consequences of the health crisis on women's access to contraceptives and the right to abortion. Finally, she calls for the French EU Council Presidency to be seen as an opportunity to put women's rights on the European and international political agenda .

Abortion: a fundamental right given the heterogeneity of the legal framework at international level

Abortion is a fundamental and inalienable human right. It is in fact protected by international and regional treaties, as well as by laws at the national level. These international texts include the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women, 1995. For example, paragraph 96 of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action states that “Women's fundamental rights include the right to control of their sexuality, including sexual” and reproductive health, without coercion, discrimination or violence

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Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, UN Women, 1995. "Yet around the world, women's freedom to dispose of their bodies is restricted, if not denied. The attacks they suffer are so constant that they are in translated into public policies that affect their long-term health and freedom. According to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) report My Body Is Mine, which compares the body autonomy index of women aged 15 to 49 from 57 countries in Asia, measured Africa and Latin America

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The Body Autonomy Index is measured by women's ability to make decisions for themselves in relation to sexual and reproductive health and rights, contraceptive use, and their ability to refuse sex and use of their bodies. To better understand, here is an inventory of abortion rights in the world.

The World Health Organization counts 121 million unwanted pregnancies each year. In the period 2015-2019, 73 million abortions were performed annually

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Guttmacher Institute, Unplanned Pregnancy and Abortion in the World, July 2020.. But 45% of the voluntary abortions (abortions) performed worldwide are in dangerous conditions for the woman

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World Health Organization, Prevention of Unsafe Abortions, September 25, 2020 .. According to a study conducted in 61 countries from 2010 to 2014, only one in four abortions is performed under good conditions in countries where it is completely banned or allowed when it comes to the survival of the woman

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My body is mine.Claim to autonomy and self-determination, UNFPA, 2021.

Globally, 41% of women of reproductive age live in a country with restrictive abortion laws — nearly 700 million women

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Official website of the Center for Reproductive Rights. In 24 countries, the law prohibits abortion completely under all circumstances; in 42 countries it is legal to prevent the woman's death, and in 72 countries it is practiced unrestrictedly within a certain period of time.

In the United States, 97 restrictions have been enacted in 19 states, making 2021 the country's most devastating year for abortion laws

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State Policy Trends in Mid-2021: Already the Worst Legislative Year Ever for U.S. Abortion Rights, Guttmacher Institute, July 2021 .. The last abortion rights violation in the country dates from Jan

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last September, when the state of Texas passed legislation that rewards citizens financially if they sue anyone who has engaged in an abortion at six weeks gestation or longer, a time few women are aware of. The Supreme Court, by a conservative majority since Donald Trump's appointment of Judge Amy Barrett after the death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, has refused to rule, at the risk of challenging the jurisprudence of the Roe v Act.Wade of 1973, which recognizes the right to abortion at the federal level

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Still, states can legislate against abortion rights, as illustrated by the situation in Texas: Joe Biden's Democratic government has filed a lawsuit against Texas, declaring the state's decision unconstitutional. In the United States, only 38% of women live between the ages of 13 and 44 in a state that allows them abortions

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Official website of the Guttmacher Institute.

In Latin America, the region has notched up recent victories over abortion rights, although it remains the hotbed of extremely resilient positions by ruling conservatives and the weight of religion. In 2021, Argentina's conservative-majority Senate legalized abortion up to fourteen weeks' gestation, a center bill Left President Alberto Fernandez and the steadfast mobilization of civil society, symbolized by the green scarf. This decision is the culmination of a long row in Parliament, which rejected an abortion law in 2018. On the other hand, it allows medical personnel to use the conscience clause, a condition of the Senate passing the law. Argentina joins Cuba and Uruguay, where abortion is unconditionally allowed. Recently, the Supreme Court of Mexico, a country that In fact, only the state of Coahuila is directly affected by this decision, but it nevertheless constitutes a jurisdiction for Mexican territory.

Conversely, in countries such as Honduras, Nicaragua or El Salvador, abortion is punishable by a prison sentence of several years, even in the case of rape or incest, severe fetal deformity or the risk of death. As a result, hundreds of women in the region are imprisoned for abortions or miscarriages.

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Juliet S. Sorensen, Alexandra Tarzikhan, Meredith Heim, “El Salvador's abortion ban jails women for miscarriages and stillbirths — now a woman's family seeks international justice,” The Conversation, March 15, 2021 .. In Honduras, according to a recent Following constitutional reform, abortion can only be legalized if three quarters of Parliament votes to decriminalize it. In this country, 30% of adolescent girls become pregnant, the second highest rate in Latin America and Central America

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Élodie Berthod, Honduras: the country where rights die, Journal International, February 16, 2021 .. In this context, the legal framework creates a climate of violence against Latin American women and girls.

Africa is one of the continents where laws regarding abortion rights are most restrictive. The differences in legislation are eloquent

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See the graphic here: Akinrinola Bankole et al., From unsafe to safe abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: slow but steady progress, Guttmacher Institute, 2020 .. Abortions in Africa are only permitted in Tunisia, Guinea-Bissau and South Africa .In Morocco, since 2020, the penal code has allowed abortions in cases of rape, incest, fetal malformations or mental disorders in women on condition that they are brought to justice, a decision taken after four years of negotiations in Parliament.In Egypt, Mauritania , Senegal, Sierra Leone, Congo and Madagascar, abortion is completely banned. According to the Guttmacher Institute, in 2019 92% of African women of childbearing age in sub-Saharan Africa lived in the 43 countries where abortion is either banned or allowed only if a woman's life is in danger.

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Akinrinola Bankole et al., From Unsafe to Safe Abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa: Slow but Steady Progress, Guttmacher Institute, 2020.. We analyze the situation of five countries in the region in more detail in the report For Freedom Dispose of Your Body.Funding and ensuring access to sexual and reproductive health and rights for women in sub-Saharan Africa

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Amandine Clavaud, Juliette Clavière, Suzanne Gorge, Alexandre Minet, Marc-Olivier Padis, Deborah Rouach, Freedom to dispose of one's body. Promoting and ensuring access to sexual and reproductive rights and health for women in sub-Saharan Africa, Jean-Jaurès Foundation, Terra Nova, June 2021. West Africa.

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Akinrinola Bankole et al., From Unsafe to Safe Abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa: Slow but Steady Progress, Guttmacher Institute, 2020 Period], three quarters of which were unsecured, which could lead to medical complications or even death of the woman.In In Burkina Faso, 72% of abortions were performed by non-medical personnel, as did 63% of abortions in Senegal

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Amandine Clavaud, Juliette Clavière, Suzanne Gorge, Alexandre Minet, Marc-Olivier Padis, Deborah Rouach, Freedom to dispose of one's body. Promoting and ensuring access to sexual and reproductive health and rights for women in sub-Saharan Africa, Jean-Jaurès Foundation, Terra Nova, June 2021."

In Asia, abortion was decriminalized in Thailand this February and can now be performed for up to 12 weeks of amenorrhea. In South Korea, abortion has been banned since 1 . no longer forbidden

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January 2021, although it is not fully legal as no law has been passed replacing the old one. On the other hand, in the Philippines and Laos, abortion is totally banned and when there is danger to the life or health of the woman in Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka Lanka allowed.

In Oceania we can cite the example of New Zealand, where abortion was decriminalized in March 2020, a campaign pledge by Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern. The situation is also mixed within the European Union (EU). Mobilization of civil society legalized abortion after 12 weeks. However, its application remains difficult due to the few medical centers and the lack of doctors and the conscience clause invoked by medical staff.

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Ireland: A year after legalization, abortion is still very difficult to access, France Inter, December 2019

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Aurélie Kieffer, Marine Courtade and Clémence Fulleda, "Abortion: Italians facing conscientious objection", France Culture, September 3, 2021.. In Poland, abortion legislation is one of the most restrictive within the EU. It was amended by the Constitutional Court on January 27, 2021. Abortions are now only allowed in cases of rape, incest or when the woman's life is in danger, and are therefore tantamount to a ban. In fact, 98% of abortions in Poland in 2019 involved a fetal malformation, a condition that is no longer legal. Finally, Malta is the only one European country that bans abortion entirely where Catholicism is the state religion.

The impact of the health crisis on sexual and reproductive rights and health

Since the end of 2019, this worrying panorama has been joined by the Covid-19 pandemic, the catastrophic consequences of which have been felt and sustained since the health crisis began.

At the beginning of the crisis, UNFPA warned of the impact of lockdowns, which would disrupt family planning services. In April 2020, UNFPA released a study with Avenir Health, Johns Hopkins University in the United States and the University of Victoria in Australia, showing that a six-month disruption could affect 47 million women in low- and middle-income countries, resulting in 7 million unintended pregnancies

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New UNFPA projections predict catastrophic effects on women's health if Covid-19 pandemic continues to spread, UNFPA, April 28, 2020. A year after the pandemic began, they revealed in another study that 12 million women of Family planning services, which caused 1.4 million unwanted pregnancies during that period

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"Covid-19: Disrupting access to family planning caused 1.4 million unwanted pregnancies," UN News, March 12, 2021.

Several factors can explain these figures and should prompt states and the entire international community to take measures for better crisis management in the future. The restrictions have caused the population to drastically reduce travel and reduced consultations in health centers. The appointments at Specialists have decreased significantly, patients prefer to postpone their consultations for fear of contagion with Covid-19.More seriously, however, in some regions of the world the delays in obtaining appointments have lengthened, while health centers due to a Due to a lack of nursing staff to reinforce the Covid-19 departments had to be closed.

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Amandine Clavaud, Juliette Clavière, Suzanne Gorge, Alexandre Minet, Marc-Olivier Padis, Deborah Rouach, Freedom to dispose of one's body. Promoting and ensuring access to sexual and reproductive health and rights for women in sub-Saharan Africa, Jean-Jaurès Foundation, Terra Nova, June 2021.. For women, this situation marked a break in the continuum of concerns about rights and sexual and reproductive health.

The health crisis has also created problems in supply chains to more remote areas due to travel restrictions but also stockpiling of certain sexual and reproductive health medicines. A revealing highlight of the international community's interdependence with China and India, where mainly contraceptive, abortion and maternal health

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Emmanuelle Josse, The Covid-19 Crisis Amplifies Threats to Women's Reproductive Health, iD4D, June 22, 2020.

Nevertheless, to meet women's sexual and reproductive health needs, some states have taken measures to maintain and allow access to contraception and abortion Having access to birth control pills without going to the doctor and thanks to an old prescription.

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Press release from the Ministry of Health and the Secretary of State responsible for gender equality dated March 15, 2020. "and" emergency contraception [was] available over the counter in pharmacies

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Press release from the Ministry of Health and the Secretary of State responsible for gender equality, March 15, 2020. ”.The press release also insists that abortions “are considered to be urgent interventions”.

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Press release of the Ministry of Health and the Secretary of State responsible for gender equality dated March 15, 2020. "and whose" continuity must be guaranteed

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Press release of the Ministry of Health and the Secretary of State responsible for equality between women and men dated March 15, 2020. “.City doctors and midwives are authorized to prescribe a medical termination of pregnancy by teleconsultation, the use of which has been extended until the ninth week of pregnancy.

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Drug abortion: how is it going during the health crisis?, Legal and Administrative Information Department (Prime Minister), Service-public.fr, June 4, 2021. This practice is authorized until the end of September, as a result of which teleconsultation will no longer be an option for women.A Study by Women on Web

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Hazal Hatay, Teleconsultation for abortion has exploded during the pandemic, and not just because of the virus, The Conversation, August 22, 2021 shows that women are more inclined to use this method for its discretion, convenience and, above all, respect before their private life, which is thereby granted to them, with the health crisis only slightly affecting this decision.This raises the question of the sustainability of the new practices developed during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Another element, the closure of borders due to prison sentences, has prevented French women, particularly in Europe, from going to border countries in the event of a late abortion. Every year, between 3,000 and 4,000 French women go abroad, particularly to Spain and the Netherlands to abort beyond the twelve weeks permitted in France.

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Marie-Noëlle Battistel and Cécile Musschotti, Information report on access to voluntary abortion, National Assembly, September 16, 2020. In response to this situation, feminist associations alerted the authorities and called for a global response in the fight against gender and sexual violence and for the prolongation of the legal deadline for demolition by two weeks, tabled by senators from the Socialist Group in the Senate - notably Laurence Rossignol - in an amendment in 2020, which was defeated

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This change also included removing the requirement for the second consultation for minors. In August 2020, a bill was introduced to strengthen the right to abortion by extending the period to fourteen weeks and removing the double conscience clause. But it was defeated in the Senate, where the right passed the majority, and was then obstructed in the National Assembly by Republican lawmakers,

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Marlène Thomas, "Proposal for a law on abortion: LR makes 'organized obstruction'", Liberation, February 16, 2021 .. Non-registered member Albane Gaillot, rapporteur for this law, pleads for it to be discussed again in December 2021 the parliamentary majority initiative week.

For their part, conservative states have not failed to use the health crisis to further restrict women's rights and sexual and reproductive health, considering abortion an "inessential" intervention like this USA, particularly in Ohio, Mississippi, Texas, Alabama, Iowa, Arkansas and Oklahoma

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Riley Beggin, “Ohio's Attorney General Told Providers to Stop Abortions During Coronavirus Pandemic,” Vox, March 22, 2020. Those measures were subsequently overturned by federal courts Allowed for severe fetal malformations, abortion has been made “almost impossible” since the pandemic.

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Bruno Meyerfeld, 'In Brazil, the ordeal of women seeking abortions amid pandemic', Le Monde, June 29, 2021 .. Europe has not been surpassed in Poland, where the conservative Law and Justice party has won the Polish state parliament a Draft law banning abortion completely - which Parliament had abandoned after strong mobilization

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Those opposed to this law have circumvented the travel restrictions imposed by the lockdown to protest in their cars, on their balconies and in public spaces to make their voices heard.of civil society during a prison sentence before, following confirmation by the Constitutional Court In Slovakia, too, the government had recommended that hospitals stop abortions "except for those that could save lives".

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Nelly Didelot, "In Slovakia there is a threat of new abortions", publication, September 18, 2020. ".In July 2020, a draft law introduced by conservative Catholic MPs was passed in the first reading in parliament: It intended to make access to abortion more difficult to set a mandatory reflection period of 48 to 96 hours and to obtain two medical certificates from two different doctors (instead of one) to have access to a therapeutic abortion in case of a fetal health problem. The bill was finally rejected by Parliament in autumn 2020

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Latest News: Slovak parliament rejects harmful restrictions on abortion care, Center for Reproductive Rights, October 20, 2020.

Women's rights: an integral part of the rule of law

This international offensive against women's rights is part of a much larger conservative movement whose attack on human rights is a cornerstone. It can be found in international forums in which coalitions of states - from the USA, via Russia, Saudi Arabia, Brazil or the Vatican - have been formed to take back the rights of women and individuals, among other things. Within the United Nations Commission on Women’s Rights, they fight at every session to ensure that the terms “abortion” or “gender” are not mentioned in the agreed conclusions. In 2019, the Security Council United Nations turn to be the theater of conservatism by the United States, which vetoed a resolution on preventing and addressing wartime sexual violence under the pretext "people who have suffered" sexual violence without any form of discrimination, comprehensive health care, including se sexual and reproductive health

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Martine Storti, "The struggle for abortion rights is like a never-ending struggle", L'Express, September 4, 2021.Promotes abortion.

In this sense, the mandate of Donald Trump from 2017 to 2021 has strengthened the weight of these coalitions, of which the United States at the head had signed, in October 2020, with about thirty other states, the Geneva consensus declaration on women and the strengthening of the family", affirm their national sovereignty over abortion-related laws

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Julien Lecot, “Thirty-two countries unite against the right to abortion,” Liberation, October 23, 2020 Rights are devastating. This rule prohibits any funding from overseas civil society organizations, health sector programs, and official development assistance for sexual and reproductive health Laying down rights and health. President Joe Biden reversed that decision from his election. Yet losses to NGOs in 2017 were estimated at $600 million.

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Delphine Sitbon, "Anti-abortion decree: Trump signs, MEPs outraged", Le Courrier du Parlement, March 20, 2017.

Unfortunately, this "backlash" dynamic can also be observed on the Old Continent. After Bulgaria in 2018, Slovakia in 2019, Hungary and Poland in 2020, Turkey for its part this year announced its withdrawal from the Istanbul Convention on Health and Safety Prevention Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence.

In this context, given the limitations of multilateralism in other forms, the international community is mobilizing around actors - states, representatives of civil society, companies, philanthropic foundations - to promote women's rights The United Nations Declaration and Platform for Action, co-led by France and Mexico, was one of the last events in July in Paris. This international summit formed coalitions of action aimed at implementing financial commitments over five years. UN Women announced that that all coalitions have pledged $40 billion. France, pioneer of the coalition for action on SRHR, has specifically committed to providing €100 million over five years and €50 million by 2026 to the French Muskoka fund

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Forum Generation Equality - France is committed to the rights of women and girls and gender equality, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs, July 2, 2021. Some associations did not fail to express their disappointment with the French commitment .The Feminist Generations Collective estimates that “at least €200 million a year is needed to truly transform access to sexual and reproductive rights.

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"Generation Equality Forum: some diplomatic advances and many contradictions by Emmanuel Macron", Collectif Générations Feministes, July 2021 2020 and the lack of consideration of the gender dimension in the various global economic stimulus plans. which she demands.

With the French EU Presidency approaching in January 2022, France must seize this opportunity to put on the political agenda the defense of women's rights, in particular the fight against gender-based violence and through the Istanbul Convention, and the defense of sexual and reproductive health and rights.

The High Council for Equality between Women and Men (HCEFh) also called for this in its recent statement "Feminist Diplomacy and the European Union: What are the priorities of the French EU Council Presidency?"

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Opinion - Feminist diplomacy and the European Union: What are the priorities of the French Presidency of the European Union?, High Council for Equality between Women and Men, 22 June 2021. so that gender equality is one of France's priorities during this Presidency.The HCEfh also recommended: Reaffirming women's rights as "an essential part of the rule of law, a question of democracy and a non-negotiable value of the EU".

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Opinion - Feminist Diplomacy and the European Union: what are the priorities of the French Presidency of the European Union?, High Council for Equality between Women and Men, 22 June 2021. “.The Opinion therefore proposes that “these rights be expressly included in the European definition of the rule of law and to integrate this criterion into the conditionality mechanism of European funding. « Le Collectif Avortement Europe, les femmes décident

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Tract du Collectif «Avorement en Europe. Les femmes décident » for the manifestation du 25 September 2021 in Paris. » complete cette approche en plaidant pour que « les délais légaux pour avorter soient harmonisés sur ceux des pays les plus progressives en Europe et que les États tendent vers une dépénalisation totale

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Tract du Collectif «Avorement en Europe. Les femmes décident » for the manifestation du 25 September 2021 in Paris.« .

Other recommendations of interest to the notice of the HCEfh: celle "d'affirmer une diplomatie féministe de l'UE

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Tract du Collectif «Avorement en Europe. Les femmes décident » for the manifestation du 25 September 2021 in Paris.« . En effet, la France met en avant sa diplomatie feministe sur la scene international depuis quelques années – c'est-à-dire porter la defense des droits des femmes comme l'un des piliers de sa politique étrangère. Néanmoins, pour que la France incarne ce leadership au be de l'UE et close range ainsi une dynamique dans les autres États membres, elle doit faire preuve de coherence au niveau national.

La crisis sanitaire a soulevé combien l'accès à la contraception et le droit à l'avorement pouvaient être menacés. Les mesures qui ont été prizes comme le recours à l'IVG médicamenteuse jusqu'à la neuvième semaine et qui prendront toutefois fin le 30 septembre prochain ont fait leur preuve pour la santé des femmes. À ce titre, elles devraient être pérennisées. L'annonce de la gratuité de la contraception pour les femmes jusqu'à 25 ans, à partir du 1

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janvier 2022, constitue une bonne nouvelle dont on ne peut que se réjouir. Cependant, celle-ci perpétue l'idée selon laquelle la contraception est uniquement une responsabilité qui incombe aux femmes. Cette mesure devrait aller de pair avec la gratuité des préservatifs. Elle intervient d'ailleurs à la suite des débats sur l'allongement du délai pour avoir recours à l'IVG de douze à quatorze semaines qui posent plus largement la question de l'égal accès à l'IVG en France et sur laquelle le gouvernement n'a pas manqué de montrer sa frilosité sur ce sujet. Le Planning familial alerte depuis quelques années sur les inégalités sociales et territoriales qui constituent des entraves à l'accès à l'IVG : délais pour l'obtention des rendez-vous, fermeture de centres de santé et distance importante entre le lieu d'habitation et le centre de santé, etc

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Alexandre Léchenet et Rozenn Le Saint, « IVG en France : un accès inégal, un droit malmené« , Mediapart, 15 septembre 2019.. Différents rapports parlementaires en attestent. Ainsi, il est urgent que toutes les femmes disposent d'un égal accès à l'IVG en France et d'en allonger le délai de recours de douze à quatorze semaines. Enfin, la double clause de conscience doit être supprimée pour que l'IVG ne soit pas considérée comme un droit particulier mais un acte médical aux mêmes titres que tous les autres. Porter ces mesures au niveau national donnerait plus de poids à la voix de la France au sein de l'UE et sur la scène internationale pour défendre les droits des femmes et la santé sexuelle et reproductive. Car attaquer ces droits fondamentaux, c'est faire reculer la démocratie.

Recommandations

Au niveau européen

Inscrire le droit à l'avortement dans la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l'Union européenne

Inclure explicitement en tant que droits humains les droits et la santé sexuels et reproductifs dans la définition de l'État de droit au niveau européen

Au niveau national

Allonger le délai de recours à l'IVG de douze à quatorze semaines

Supprimer la double clause de conscience

Rendre effectif pour les femmes le choix de la méthode pour avoir recours à l'IVG

Permettre aux sages-femmes de pratiquer les IVG instrumentales

1

« Prévention des avortements à risque », Organisation mondiale de la santé, 25 septembre 2020.

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Véronique Séhier, « Une femme meurt toutes les 9 minutes d'un avortement clandestin dans le monde », Le Parisien, 20 mai 2018.

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Déclaration et Programme d'action de Beijing, ONU Femmes, 1995.

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L'indice d'autonomie corporelle est mesuré en fonction de la capacité des femmes à pouvoir prendre leurs propres décisions concernant la santé et les droits en matière de sexualité et de reproduction, le recours à la contraception ainsi que leur possibilité à refuser des relations sexuelles.

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Guttmacher Institute, La grossesse non planifiée et l'avortement dans le monde, juillet 2020.

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Organisation mondiale de la santé, Prévention des avortements à risque, 25 septembre 2020.

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Mon corps m'appartient. revendiquer le droit à l'autonomie et à l'autodétermination, FNUAP, 2021.

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Site officiel du Center for Reproductive Rights

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State Policy Trends at Midyear 2021: Already the Worst Legislative Year Ever for US Abortion Rights, Guttmacher Institute, juillet 2021.

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Malgré tout, les États peuvent imposer des lois contre le droit d'avorter, comme en témoigne la situation au Texas.

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Site officiel du Guttmacher Institute.

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Juliet S. Sorensen, Alexandra Tarzikhan, Meredith Heim, « El Salvador's abortion ban jails women for miscarriages and stillbirths – now one woman's family seeks international justice« , The Conversation, 15 mars 2021.

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Élodie Berthod, Honduras : le pays où les droits meurent, Journal International, 16 février 2021.

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Voir le graphique ici : Akinrinola Bankole et al., De l'avortement non sécurisé à sécurisé en Afrique subsaharienne : des progrès lents mais constants, Guttmacher Institute, 2020.

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Akinrinola Bankole et al., De l'avortement non sécurisé à sécurisé en Afrique subsaharienne : des progrès lents mais constants, Guttmacher Institute, 2020.

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Amandine Clavaud, Juliette Clavière, Suzanne Gorge, Alexandre Minet, Marc-Olivier Padis, Deborah Rouach, Droit de disposer librement de son corps. Promouvoir et garantir l'accès aux droits et à la santé sexuels et reproductifs des femmes en Afrique subsaharienne, Fondation Jean-Jaurès, Terra Nova, juin 2021.

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Akinrinola Bankole et al., De l'avortement non sécurisé à sécurisé en Afrique subsaharienne : des progrès lents mais constants, Guttmacher Institute, 2020.

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Amandine Clavaud, Juliette Clavière, Suzanne Gorge, Alexandre Minet, Marc-Olivier Padis, Deborah Rouach, Droit de disposer librement de son corps. Promouvoir et garantir l'accès aux droits et à la santé sexuels et reproductifs des femmes en Afrique subsaharienne, Fondation Jean-Jaurès, Terra Nova, juin 2021.

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Irlande : un an après sa légalisation l'IVG reste très difficile d'accès, France Inter, décembre 2019.

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Aurélie Kieffer, Marine Courtade et Clémence Fulleda, « Avortement : les Italiennes face à l'objection de conscience« , France Culture, 3 septembre 2021.

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Les nouvelles projections de l'UNFPA prévoient des répercussions désastreuses sur la santé des femmes alors que la pandémie de Covid-19 continue de se propager, UNFPA, 28 avril 2020.

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« Covid-19 : la perturbation de l'accès à la planification familiale a provoqué 1,4 million de grossesses non désirées », ONU Info, 12 mars 2021.

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Amandine Clavaud, Juliette Clavière, Suzanne Gorge, Alexandre Minet, Marc-Olivier Padis, Deborah Rouach, Droit de disposer librement de son corps. Promouvoir et garantir l'accès aux droits et à la santé sexuels et reproductifs des femmes en Afrique subsaharienne, Fondation Jean-Jaurès, Terra Nova, juin 2021.

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Emmanuelle Josse, La crise du Covid-19 aggrave les menaces sur la santé reproductive des femmes, iD4D, 22 juin 2020.

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Communiqué du ministère de la Santé et du secrétariat d'État chargé de l'égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, 15 mars 2020.

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Communiqué du ministère de la Santé et du secrétariat d'État chargé de l'égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, 15 mars 2020.

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Communiqué du ministère de la Santé et du secrétariat d'État chargé de l'égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, 15 mars 2020.

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Communiqué du ministère de la Santé et du secrétariat d'État chargé de l'égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, 15 mars 2020.

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IVG médicamenteuse : comment ça se passe pendant la crise sanitaire ?, Direction de l'information légale et administrative (Premier ministre), Service-public.fr, 4 juin 2021

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Hazal Hatay, Durant la pandémie les téléconsultations pour IVG ont explosé, et ce n'est pas uniquement à cause du virus, The Conversation, 22 août 2021.

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Marie-Noëlle Battistel et Cécile Muschotti, Rapport d'information sur l'accès à l'interruption volontaire de grossesse, Assemblée nationale, 16 septembre 2020

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Cet amendement comprenait aussi la suppression de l'exigence de la deuxième consultation pour les mineures.

33

Marlène Thomas, « Proposition de loi sur l'IVG : LR fait 'de l'obstruction organisée'« , Libération, 16 février 2021.

34

Riley Beggin, « Ohio's attorney general told providers to stop abortions during the coronavirus pandemic », Vox, 22 mars 2020.

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Bruno Meyerfeld, « Au Brésil, le calvaire des femmes qui veulent avorter en pleine pandémie« , Le Monde, 29 juin 2021.

36

Les personnes contre ce projet de loi ont contourné les restrictions de déplacement imposées par le confinement pour faire entendre leur voix en manifestant dans leur voiture, sur leur balcon et dans l'espace public.

37

Nelly Didelot, « En Slovaquie, de nouvelles menaces sur l'IVG« , Libération, 18 septembre 2020.

38

Dernières nouvelles : Le Parlement slovaque rejette les restrictions nuisibles aux soins d'avortement, Center for Reproductive rRghts, 20 octobre 2020

39

Martine Storti, « La lutte pour le droit à l'avortement s'apparente à un combat sans fin », L'Express, 4 septembre 2021.

40

Julien Lecot, « Trente-deux pays se liguent contre le droit à l'avortement” », Libération, 23 octobre 2020.

41

Delphine Sitbon, « Décret anti-avortement : Trump signe, les députés européens s'indignent », Le Courrier du Parlement, 20 mars 2017.

42

Forum Génération Égalité – la France s'engage pour les droits des femmes et des filles et l'égalité de genre, ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères, 2 juillet 2021.

43

“Forum Génération Égalité : quelques avancées diplomatiques et beaucoup de contradictions d'Emmanuel Macron”, Collectif Générations féministes, juillet 2021.

44

Avis – Diplomatie féministe et Union européenne : quelles priorités pour la présidence française de l'Union européenne ?, Haut Conseil à l'égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, 22 juin 2021.

45

Avis – Diplomatie féministe et Union européenne : quelles priorités pour la présidence française de l'Union européenne ?, Haut Conseil à l'égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, 22 juin 2021.

46

Tract du Collectif « Avortement en Europe. Les femmes décident » pour la manifestation du 25 septembre 2021 à Paris.

47

Tract du Collectif « Avortement en Europe. Les femmes décident » pour la manifestation du 25 septembre 2021 à Paris.

48

Tract du Collectif « Avortement en Europe. Les femmes décident » pour la manifestation du 25 septembre 2021 à Paris.

49

Alexandre Léchenet et Rozenn Le Saint, « IVG en France : un accès inégal, un droit malmené« , Mediapart, 15 septembre 2019.